The negative health impacts of air pollution on children are well documented and it’s therefore imperative we reduce their exposure to pollution. A logical place to start is by looking at schools, where they spend most of their time during the week.
The APPG has long been a supporter of campaigns to reduce young people’s exposure to air pollution, including banning idling outside of schools, using hedges and plants to improve air quality in playgrounds and supporting active travel to schools. The APPG was therefore delighted to host this special event on schools and air pollution.
WATCH THE MEETING IN FULL:
Geraint Davies, Chair of the APPG, said that a second lockdown in England gave a renewed opportunity to improve air quality. It should also provide a further incentive for parents and schools to work together to reduce the pollution in schools to ensure they are healthy and safe places for children to learn, noting the link between prevalence and severity of Coronavirus with air pollution. He said it was important that parents are given up-to-date information on pollution levels to inspire healthier choices for travelling to school each day, with the support of schools and local authorities. The government must also act by including World Health Organisation pollution guidelines and provisions for monitoring indoor air pollution in the Environment Bill. He urged for people to write to their MPs asking for them to support these amendments to the Bill.
Chris Large, Co-CEO at Global Action Plan, said that Air Quality is an environmental issue, health issue, societal issue and an economic challenge. The benefits of tackling air pollution range from better health, with fewer road accidents, reduces stressed, less loneliness etc. Global Action’s school’s framework therefore sets out ways to engage different groups to tackle air pollution. You can see his full presentation here.
Dr Luke Munford, University of Manchester, summarised academic literature that shows air pollution decreased executive functioning in primary school students and carried out a study on how different pollutants effected memory. You can see the full presentation here.
Sheila Watson, Deputy Director of Environment and Research, FIA Foundation, showed the outcomes of a project, which gave school-aged children evidence on air pollution emission to interrogate. It successfully gave young peoplea voice in the debate about car manufacturing and omissions. You can see the full presentation here.
Gemma McHenry, Project Manager, Philips Foundation, highlighted how The Clean Air for Schools partnership set-out to equip all schools across the UK and Ireland with the tools and knowledge to improve air quality. You can see the full presentation here.
Steve Marsland, Head Teacher, Russell Scott Primary, said that schools working together can make the changes needed for better air quality for children.
In light of evidence on the detrimental impacts of air pollution on children’s ability to learn, we will be exploring solutions to improve air quality and the role that schools, businesses as well as local and national authorities can all play. The meeting will include presentations from:
Chris Large Co-Ceo, Global Action Plan
Dr Luke Munford & Professor Martie Van Tongeren, University of Manchester
Sheila Watson, Deputy Director of Environment and Research, FIA Foundation
Gemma McHenry, Project Manager, Philips Foundation
Steve Marsland, Head Teacher, Russell Scott Primary
With a new Committee deadline for the Environment Bill set in December 21st, the APPG took the opportunity to have an in-depth look with Minister Rebecca Pow.
Guest panellists Professor Stephen Holgate, Royal College of Physicians special adviser on air quality and Professor Elouise Scotford, Environmental Law at UCL gave their analysis of the Bill for their distinct professional points of view.
WATCH THE MEETING IN FULL :
Geraint Davies, Chair of the APPG, opened the meeting by calling for legally binding targets that can protect public health, to protect the environment and to protect the economy by giving businesses regulatory framework.
Minister Rebecca Pow acknowledged thatair pollutionis the single greatest environmental risk to human health. The Environment Bill, she noted, is the biggest piece of legislation to come through the Houses of Parliament is around two decades. In its current draft the Bill sets a legal duty on government to set a legally binding target on fine particulate matter, which has the most significant impact on human health. It also sets a duty to set an additional long-term target on air pollution.
A new paper published in August sets out how the government will focus on reducing average population exposure, which Minister Pow said was an innovative approach. Minister Pow argued that adopting WHO guideline limits in the Bill would be too simplistic. Before setting the targets the government plan to launch a public consultation to inform their decision and MPs will have a chance to scrutinise the targets before they are set in secondary legislation.
Aside from the targets, Minister Pow noted the additional powers that would be given to local authorities, giving them a framework for tackling air pollution. One of these will ensure that information is shared across multiple levels of local government to help tackle pollution. It will also give local authorities the powers to take action to stop people repeatedly emitting smoke without the need for long and costly legal battles in the courts. Plus, the Bill tightens control around solid fuels and gives powers to local authorities to stop them being burnt in smoke control areas, like on river barges for example.
Minister Pow, however, said that the Environment Bill was only one tool to tackle air pollution along with a wider context of measures that have been put in place, most notably through the Clean Air Strategy. A new one is due to be published and the Strategy will continue to be reviewed every five years.
In line with discussions with the Chair of the APPG, the government is doing a review of indoor air pollution with Public Health England and are looking at targeted interventions. The Air Quality Expert Group will be producing a report on indoor air quality focusing on fine particular matter and volatile organic compounds.
Due to the pandemic this year, the government is reviewing the link between air pollution and Covid-19, such as the link between deaths from Covid-19 and long-term exposure to air pollution. Also, the government is looking into impact of lockdown and air quality. The Minister noted that through the pandemic the government has promoted active travel and given funding to local authorities to improve cycle lanes.
Professor Stephen Holgate made clear that public health needs to be centre of the bill, noting in particular the damage it had on the growth of babies’ lungs. He said that more needed to be made of the biology behind the threat of fine particles need much more emphasis and there needed to be greater analysis of the toxicology of particles, rather than talking generally about particles as if particles from diesel to ammonia to burnt toast were all the same. He noted that only by understanding the differential threat can we better tackle the biggest offended.
Prof Holgate lamented that the responsibility for air pollution had been devolved to national governments and Public Health England and suggested instead there should be a joined-up approach which is health focussed and places responsibilities on Transport, Planning and Housing as well as DEFRA to deliver enforceable WHO standards
While the Bill prepares to hand over more powers to local authorities, Professor Holgate pointed out that three councils – Southampton, Leeds and Coventry have abandoned planned Clean Air Zones for lack of government cash and new Covid-19 responsibilities.
Professor Eloise Scotford said the structure of the Environment Bill allows for ambitious targets to be created, yet there is also an opportunity for delay and a lowering of standards over time. The Bill therefore needs to include an objective for target setting, which for air quality needs to be around the highest level of public and environmental health. There also needs to be some signal as to when and how new targets will be set going forward. There is also a risk of their being a two-track of environmental standards, between the ones we currently have and the new ones the government will bring forward, where it seems the former will be more enforceable. Prof Scotford suggests interim targets would help plug that gap.
Prof Scotford agreed that more structures to encourage local authorities and public bodies to coordinate is a helpful step forward. Yet she noted that local authorities don’t always have competence over pollution sources like major road building, fuel duty and subsidies for cleaner transport or nearby industry and agriculture so the Bill should ensure that central government ultimately remain responsible for cleaner air.
These statements were followed by a Q&A, where audience members made up of doctors, academics, lawyers, journalists, environmental experts, local leaders, MPs and peers were able to ask questions to the panel.
Environment Bill with Minister Rebecca Pow Ahead of the Environment Bill returning to Parliament, the APPG is delighted to host Minister Pow to discuss improving air quality through the Environment Bill along with panellists:
Professor Stephen Holgate, Royal College of Physicians special adviser onair quality, and
Professor Elouise Scotford, Environmental Law at UCL
Following the success of the Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus report in July, the APPG held its second virtual meeting which included a video launch for the strategy and panel discussion with Global Action and Businesses from the Clean Air Taskforce.
Context of the meeting:
• The impact of business on the UK’s air quality • What the UK public expect of government and business on air pollution, since Coronavirus • What businesses can do to reduce air pollution and #Act4Cleanair • Government measures that can accelerate the response from the private sector to address air pollution
Global Action Plan, Larissa Lockwood, Head of Air Quality and Chris Large, Co-CEO. The full presentation can be found here
Philips UKI & Philips Foundation, Mark Leftwich, Director, Personal Health.
Zehnder Group UK, Ben Simons, Country Manager, Clean Air Solutions. The full presentation can be found here
Octopus Electric Vehicles, Fiona Howarth, CEO. The full presentation can be found here
DEFRA, Anna Sargeant, Deputy Head, Air Quality and Industrial Emissions. The full presentation can be found here
MP’s in Attendance
John McNally MP Christine Jardine MP Sarah Britcliffe MP Tony Lloyd MP Peter Dowd MP Fleur Anderson MP Neale Hanvey MP
Air Pollution All Party Parliamentary Group Zoom meeting took place on Friday 29th May, Air Pollution & Coronavirus
Academic research & post-lockdown strategy
COVID death & infection rates and air pollution
Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health Xiao Wu, doctoral student, and Rachel Nethery, Assistant Professor of Biostatistics Queen Mary University of London Jonathan Grigg, Professor of paediatricrespiratory and environmental medicine York University Alastair Lewis, Professor of atmospheric chemistryand Chair of the Defra Air Quality Expert Group (AQEG) Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus Infection.
The APPG launched its Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus Infection as we emerge from Lockdown in order to keep air pollution low and to deliver World Health Organisation Air Quality Standards.
A cross-party group of 90 MP and Peers has written to the Prime Minister calling on him to back a clean air strategy to reduce the risk of coronavirus and to set about an economic recovery that puts public health and the environment centre stage.
The letter refers to the report based on proposals from scientists, businesses, local authorities and MPs and cites research from Harvard and Queen Mary London universities that pollution is linked with higher COVID-19 death and infection rates.
Harvard showed that 1 micro-gramme per cubic metre increase in PM2.5 particulates equates an 8% increase in COVID deaths and Queen Mary that air pollution stimulates the receptors in the nose and throat that catch the infection.
The proposals include safer more frequent public transport, cleaner private transport, more pedestrian space and cycling, a clamp-down on wood and coal burning, improvements in indoor air quality, less polluting machinery, a reduction in ammonia fertilisers and the adoption of World Health Organisation air quality targets.
Geraint Davies MP, Chair of the APPG on Air Pollution said,
“Air pollution already kills 62,000 people prematurely in the UK each year. It damages hearts and lungs which accounts for the higher death rate from coronavirus in polluted neighbourhoods.
“These neighbourhoods are more likely to be poorer with a higher proportion of black and minority ethnic minority BAME communities. The latest research also shows that pollution increases infection rates and may even transport the virus.
“Therefore, it is vitally important that the Prime Minister acts immediately on the emerging science and our wide-ranging proposals backed by scientists, businesses, local authorities and 90 Parliamentarians.
“Air pollution already costs the economy £20 billion and these proposals are capable of generating export income, tax revenue and substantial NHS savings.”
The APPG today launched its Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus Infection during its first digital meeting, which heard from academics, from three universities, who presented research that showed higher severity and frequency of Covid cases caused by air pollution and examined how lockdown has reduced air pollution exposure.
Geraint Davies, the APPG Chair, presented the report, written using evidence from scientists, businesses and local authorities. It comprised of twelve sets of proposals including the continuation of home working, increasing spaces for pedestrian and cyclists, more frequent public transport services to avoid crowding, improvements in indoor air quality and the adoption of World Health Organisation air quality targets.
He noted that, in regards to research that air pollution is linked to more severe Covid cases and increased vulnerability of catching the virus, these proposals aim to avoid, or minimise, a second peak in infection as lockdown measures are reduced. Further, they set a clear pathway for a healthier, greener recovery.
Watch the Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus virus event below:
Xiao Wu, doctoral student, and Rachel Nethery, Assistant Professor of Biostatistics from Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health presented their research into the impact of air pollution on the severity of COVID-19 to explain differences in COVID-19 mortality rates. It shows that a 1 micro-gramme per cubic metre increase in PM2.5 particulates equates to a significant increase in infection rates and an 8% increase in COVID deaths. The full presentation can be foundhere.
Jonathan Grigg, Professor of paediatric at Queen Mary University of London, presented research showing air pollution increases vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting a biological link between air pollution and Covid-19 . His presentation can be found here.
Alastair Lewis, Professor of atmospheric chemistry at York University and Chair of the DEFRA Air Quality Expert Group (AQEG), presented extracts from AQEQ’s rapid evidence review on air pollution learning from Covid-19 lockdown. His presentation can be found here.
The risk is that once lockdown is lifted, more people may opt for personal private modes of transport in order to protect themselves from catching the virus, therefore increasing the levels of pollution.
We therefore would like to develop an Exit Strategy that can demonstrate how government, local authorities, businesses and individuals can adapt so that we reduce our pollution long term.
If you have evidence to submit then please email email@example.com with the subject title ‘Submit evidence for Clean Air Exit Strategy’ by Wednesday, May 6. Please submit as a document with references for any points or evidence given. Due to time restrictions evidence will not be sourced if not provided.