Business for Clean Air

Following the success of the Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus report in July, the APPG held its second virtual meeting which included a video launch for the strategy and panel discussion with Global Action and Businesses from the Clean Air Taskforce.

Context of the meeting: 

• The impact of business on the UK’s air quality
• What the UK public expect of government and business on air pollution, since Coronavirus
• What businesses can do to reduce air pollution and #Act4Cleanair
• Government measures that can accelerate the response from the private sector to address air pollution

Presentations

Global Action Plan, Larissa Lockwood, Head of Air Quality and Chris Large, Co-CEO. The full presentation can be found here

Philips UKI & Philips Foundation, Mark Leftwich, Director, Personal Health.

Zehnder Group UK, Ben Simons, Country Manager, Clean Air Solutions. The full presentation can be found here

Octopus Electric Vehicles, Fiona Howarth, CEO. The full presentation can be found here

DEFRA, Anna Sargeant, Deputy Head, Air Quality and Industrial Emissions. The full presentation can be found here


MP’s in Attendance

John McNally MP
Christine Jardine MP
Sarah Britcliffe MP
Tony Lloyd MP
Peter Dowd MP
Fleur Anderson MP
Neale Hanvey MP

Launch of Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus infection

#Act4CleanAir

Air Pollution All Party Parliamentary Group
Zoom meeting took place on Friday 29th May, Air Pollution & Coronavirus

Academic research & post-lockdown strategy

Research presentations

COVID death & infection rates and air pollution

Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health Xiao Wu, doctoral student, and Rachel Nethery, Assistant Professor of Biostatistics Queen Mary University of London Jonathan Grigg, Professor of paediatricrespiratory and environmental medicine York University Alastair Lewis, Professor of atmospheric chemistryand Chair of the Defra Air Quality Expert Group (AQEG) Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus Infection.

The APPG launched its Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus Infection as we emerge from Lockdown in order to keep air pollution low and to deliver World Health Organisation Air Quality Standards.

Geraint Davies
Chair APPG Air Pollution

Letter to PM to adopt Clean Air Proposals

A cross-party group of 90 MP and Peers has written to the Prime Minister calling on him to back a clean air strategy to reduce the risk of coronavirus and to set about an economic recovery that puts public health and the environment centre stage.

The letter refers to the report based on proposals from scientists, businesses, local authorities and MPs and cites research from Harvard and Queen Mary London universities that pollution is linked with higher COVID-19 death and infection rates.

Harvard showed that 1 micro-gramme per cubic metre increase in PM2.5 particulates equates an 8% increase in COVID deaths and Queen Mary that air pollution stimulates the receptors in the nose and throat that catch the infection.

Read the ‘Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus’

The proposals include safer more frequent public transport, cleaner private transport, more pedestrian space and cycling, a clamp-down on wood and coal burning, improvements in indoor air quality, less polluting machinery, a reduction in ammonia fertilisers and the adoption of World Health Organisation air quality targets.

Geraint Davies MP, Chair of the APPG on Air Pollution said,

“Air pollution already kills 62,000 people prematurely in the UK each year. It damages hearts and lungs which accounts for the higher death rate from coronavirus in polluted neighbourhoods.

“These neighbourhoods are more likely to be poorer with a higher proportion of black and minority ethnic minority BAME communities. The latest research also shows that pollution increases infection rates and may even transport the virus.

“Therefore, it is vitally important that the Prime Minister acts immediately on the emerging science and our wide-ranging proposals backed by scientists, businesses, local authorities and 90 Parliamentarians.

“Air pollution already costs the economy £20 billion and these proposals are capable of generating export income, tax revenue and substantial NHS savings.”

Read the letter to the Prime Minister

Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus infection

The APPG today launched its Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus Infection during its first digital meeting, which heard from academics, from three universities, who presented research that showed higher severity and frequency of Covid cases caused by air pollution and examined how lockdown has reduced air pollution exposure.

Read the Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus Infection

Screenshot 2020-06-12 at 17.18.12

Geraint Davies, the APPG Chair, presented the report, written using evidence from scientists, businesses and local authorities. It comprised of twelve sets of proposals including the continuation of home working, increasing spaces for pedestrian and cyclists, more frequent public transport services to avoid crowding, improvements in indoor air quality and the adoption of World Health Organisation air quality targets.

He noted that, in regards to research that air pollution is linked to more severe Covid cases and increased vulnerability of catching the virus, these proposals aim to avoid, or minimise, a second peak in infection as lockdown measures are reduced. Further, they set a clear pathway for a healthier, greener recovery.

Watch the Air Quality Strategy to Reduce Coronavirus virus event below:

Air Quality Strategy APPG event

Xiao Wu, doctoral student, and Rachel Nethery, Assistant Professor of Biostatistics from Harvard T.H. Chan School Of Public Health presented their research into the impact of air pollution on the severity of COVID-19 to explain differences in COVID-19 mortality rates. It shows that a 1 micro-gramme per cubic metre increase in PM2.5 particulates equates to a significant increase in infection rates and an 8% increase in COVID deaths. The full presentation can be found here.

Jonathan Grigg, Professor of paediatric at Queen Mary University of London, presented research showing air pollution increases vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting a biological link between air pollution and Covid-19 . His presentation can be found here.

Alastair Lewis, Professor of atmospheric chemistry at York University and Chair of the DEFRA Air Quality Expert Group (AQEG), presented extracts from AQEQ’s rapid evidence review on air pollution learning from Covid-19 lockdown. His presentation can be found here.

Damian Carrington, environment editor at the Guardian, joined the event. His article can be read here.

Submit evidence for Clean Air Exit Strategy

Dear members and supporters of the APPG on Air Pollution,

I hope you and your loved ones are well and staying safe.

A rare opportunity of the lockdown has been that air pollution has dropped and we want to see this sustained post-lockdown, as noted in my article for the Independent: https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/coronavirus-lockdown-uk-air-pollution-health-london-birmingham-a9481721.html

The risk is that once lockdown is lifted, more people may opt for personal private modes of transport in order to protect themselves from catching the virus, therefore increasing the levels of pollution.

We therefore would like to develop an Exit Strategy that can demonstrate how government, local authorities, businesses and individuals can adapt so that we reduce our pollution long term.

If you have evidence to submit then please email geraint.davies.mp@parliament.uk with the subject titleSubmit evidence for Clean Air Exit Strategy’ by Wednesday, May 6. Please submit as a document with references for any points or evidence given. Due to time restrictions evidence will not be sourced if not provided.

I look forward to reading your contributions.

Best wishes,

Geraint Davies

APPG on Air Pollution 15th January 2020 – Minutes of AGM and APPG Meeting

Annual General Meeting
Geraint Davies welcomed attendees and thanked the panel for taking part.
Geraint Davies was re-appointed as Chairman of the APPG on Air Pollution with unanimous support. The appointments of officers and Vice-chairman were as follows.

John McNally – (Vice Chair)
Helen Hayes MP – (Vice Chair)
Dr Dan Poulter MP – (Vice Chair)
Karen Buck MP – (Vice Chair)
Claudia Webbe – (Vice Chair)
Baroness Jones of Mouslecoomb – (Vice Chair)

APPG meeting
Chairman welcomed the appointment of Vice-Chairman and returning officers to the first APPG meeting of 2020 and introduced the panel of speakers.

Professor Steven Holgate
Stephen is Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Professor of Immunopharmacology at the University of Southampton, with a research interest in the mechanisms of asthma and allergy. He has over 1,000 peer-reviewed publications and an h-index of 157. He has been President of the British Society for Allergy & Clinical Immunology, the British Thoracic Society and is currently President of the British Association for Lung Research and the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum.

He has been Chair of the MRC Population & Systems Medicine Board, the MRC Translational Research Group, a member of the MRC and NERC Strategy Boards, and chaired the Main Panel A (Medical & Life Sciences) of Research Excellence Framework 2014. Stephen chaired the UK Government Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants, the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards, the Hazardous Substances Advisory Committee and was a member of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.

Greg Archer
Greg has been with T&E since 2012. He was previously the director of Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, a UK public-private partnership promoting the shift to clean vehicles and fuels. He has also worked as a non-executive director for the UK Government’s Renewable Fuels Agency and Cenex, a centre of excellence for low carbon technologies.

Having led T&E’s clean vehicles program for six years, Greg now heads up our campaigns in the UK. A chemist by training, Greg describes himself as a “pragmatic environmentalist”.

Kate Harrison
Has represented individuals and groups in a number of public interest cases, including judicial reviews, (for example, challenging government policy on nuclear power, the government’s decision to support a 3rd runway at Heathrow and to pursue HS2), other High Court cases (for example representing Labour Party members who were denied a vote in the 2016 leadership contest), Information Tribunal hearings (for example whether the Duchy of Cornwall is a public authority and the meaning of “environmental information”), the European Court of Justice and other international fora (including the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea and the Aarhus Compliance Committee). In 2014 she was picked for her litigation skills in the “Lawyer Hot 100”.

Stephen Holgate Presentation
The Chairman thanked Steven Holgate for an interesting presentation looking at the effects of indoor air pollution. The Chairman also highlighted that the government has announced 40 million pounds to tackle air pollution and would like to see more done to tackle this issue.

Greg Archer Presentation
The Chairman thanked Greg Archer for the presentation and mentioned the need for a ‘Clean Air Bill’ to be adopted into government’s environment bill. The Chairman referred to enforcement in the clean air bill and raised revenue from fines should go towards the NHS and to Local Authority budgets.

Kate Harrison Presentation
The Chairman thanked Kate Harrison for the presentation and moved to the public session of the agenda.

Public session key points:
Rosamund Adoo-Kissi-Debrah (Co-Founder of the Ella Roberta Family Foundation) – Monitoring of air pollution by government agencies and Local Authorities is ‘woeful’. There is no detailed reference to health in the government’s Environment Bill.

Jenny Bates (Friends of the Earth campaigner)
The UK must work with its friends and partners around the world and be an international player on tackling Air Quality. Opportunity at COP26 to demonstrate to the world that progress has been made.

Claudia Webbe (MP for Leicester East)
Thanked Greg Archer for presentation and argues that more work needs to be done outside of London to tackle air quality from polluting vehicles, particularly with diesel vehicles and the impact of health on children.

The Chairman responded by saying a national campaign is needed. Greg Archer mentions that traffic is the main contributor to air pollution.

Kate Harrison – Local Authorities should be properly funded and given more control over highway networks outside of London in order to monitor and then control air pollution.

Steven Holgate made the closing statement
Opportunity for government’s chief scientists to present to the public the facts around air pollution.

The Chairman thanked speakers and members of the public for attending the first APPG on Air Pollution meeting 2020.

The Times Air Pollution Campaign: #Act4CleanAir

Wednesday 2nd October 2019

APPG Chair Geraint Davies MP welcomed attendees and introduced the panel.  The #Act4CleanAir campaign was launched with a video that features a cross-party group of MPs reading the Time manifesto pledges. All of these provisions were included in Mr Davies Clean Air Bill, which had been presented earlier that day and he briefly outlined.

The first panellist was Ben Webster, environment editor of The Times.  Ben explained the origin of The Times’ Clean Air Campaign, and his own role and experience of wearing a personal air monitor.  He outlined the targets the campaign had set and the support it had received from politicians.

Gary Fuller of Kings College spoke next.  He emphasised the health impacts of air pollution, the ‘invisible killer’.  He called for a holistic approach to tackling the problem rather than targetting only on one pollutant at a time.  There was also a need to focus on continuously reducing pollution levels, not just complying with limit values.  And he was encouraged by the rising public engagement with the issue.

Simon Birkett of Clean Air London was the next speaker.  He stressed the need for clean air to be a legal human right, and criticised Defra for its weak responses to rising concern over air pollution, including the recent Air Quality Strategy which he felt a not robust enough. He noted that there were currently six clean air bills being put forward in Parliament.

Baroness Bryony Worthington was the fourth speaker. She talked about the Clean Air Bill which she was sponsoring in the Lords, and argued that the core issue was combustion in urban environments and that this should be the real focus of legislation.

Rosamund Adoo-Kissi-Debrah, Founder at The Ella Roberta Family Foundation, was the final speaker.  She spoke of her daughter’s death due to asthma triggered by air pollutants, and that her tragedy was but one of many thousands given the scale of public health impacts.  Radical action was needed.

The Chair then opened the meeting up for Q and A and discussion.  In the debate that followed, points made included:

  • Whether the various Bills include measures to improve indoor air quality? The panel explained that did and others didn’t.
  • The decline in new vehicle diesel sales and the responsibilities of the motor industry in tackling air pollution
  • The reason for the Tines picking a 2030 deadline to end sales of new diesel and petrol vehicles. Ben Webster explained that 2030 matched the deadline chosen by several other advanced economies and therefore should be feasible, though an argument could be made for shortening the timescale further. Sandy Martin MP emphasised that changes such as the ban often needed effort and compromise to get sufficient support among stakeholders and in Parliament to deliver, however much they were supported by APPG members.
  • The need to tackle shipping emissions, which in many cases were unregulated.
  • The role of active travel and green infrastructure, along with tougher controlled parking policies.

The meeting concluded with a discussion about how best to maximise public engagement.  Karen Buck MP pointed out that public support was needed to enable tough policy actions to curb pollution, and the panel agreed that more public engagement was needed.

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The Clean Air Bill,  supported by 120 parliamentarians, can be downloaded here

Watch the Clean Air Bill and The Time’s Clean Air Manifesto video below:

Screenshot 2019-10-08 at 16.22.08

Following are the MPs who contributed to the video:

  • Tim Loughton MP for East Worthing and Shoreham
  • David Drew MP for  Stroud
  • Andrew Selous  MP for  South West Bedfordshire
  • Tony Lloyd MP for Rochdale
  • Ed Vaizey MP for Wantage
  • Anne Marie Morris MP for Newton Abbot
  • Oliver Heald MP for North East Hertfordshire
  • Anna McMorrin MP for Cardiff North
  • Daniel Zeichner MP for  Cambridge
  • Geraint Davies   MP for  Swansea West
  • Afzal Khan MP for  Manchester Gorton
  • Kelvin Hopkins MP for  Luton North
  • Lilian Greenwood MP for  Nottingham South
  • Tracey Crouch MP for Chatham and Aylesford
  • Janet Daby MP for Lewisham East
  • Rosie Duffield MP for Canterbury

Note of APPG on Air Pollution meeting on 18/7/19: The Air We Share

Thatcher Room, Portcullis House

On the 18th of July, the APPG on Air Pollution held its second event of 2019, focused on the key findings of phase one of “The Air We Share”, a new transformative communications and engagement campaign that aims to cut Londoner’s exposure to poor air quality.

Michael Farrow, Executive Director of EIC, welcomed the attendees and thanked the panel for taking part, and Trewin Restorick (CEO) and Elle McAll (Creative Partner) from Hubbub for organizing the event.

Before the panel took the stage, the following video was played, to give the audience a general overview of the #AirWeShare campaign by Hubbub.

Following the short video, Elle (chair of the event) invited the panellists to introduce themselves:

Andrew Grieve kicked off the discussion on the phase one #AirWeShare campaign by raising awareness on another issue which should be mentioned and analysed more often. He pointed out how the general public and media tends to focus on the PM2.5 and PM10 particles, disregarding ozone. Ozone is normally formed when other pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide, react in sunlight. According to Mr. Grieve, ozone figures are currently on the rise and it is indeed an issue which should be further discussed. Mr. Grieve then focused on the #AirWeShare campaign.

He explained how Kings College has a network of monitors set up around London to measure pollution levels. Whilst the data gathered by the network is relevant for further analysis of specific areas and the City itself, it doesn’t tell us about individual-level exposure. Monitoring an individual’s exposure is complex, as daily lives differ from one another. In order to gain an insight into when and where people are most exposed to pollution, Hubbub and Kings College selected 13 people of different ages, gender, professions and neighbourhoods, and asked them to carry an air quality monitor up to one week. The results were indeed very different from one another; for example, the HGV driver and outdoor worker were noticeably more exposed than the others.

Mr. Grieve mentioned some findings, such as that concerns over air pollution were particularly high for families with children; wider spaces with minor constrictions were less polluted; buildings closer to roads were exposed to more pollution compared to buildings located in quieter roads. In one particular instance, the air quality monitor spiked for one of the Londoners: it turned out that the reason for the spike was the burning of a candle during an evening yoga relaxation session. Tube lines are particularly polluted zones, especially the Northern Line as it is the deepest; Karen Buck MP shared her surprise about the spike she saw on her monitor when riding the Bakerloo Line. It was highlighted that the composition of particles Underground is different to Overground (tube dust is mostly iron oxide).

It was observed how personal story-telling element can raise awareness of the issue on a more tangible level, compared to an academic study. Hence why The Times used the #AirWeShare study to support its Clean Air For All campaign.

Mr. Restorick explained how he thinks there’s the opportunity for businesses to take a lead,  because while government policies are needed, businesses can move much faster compared to government’s initiatives. Mr. Restorick also added that more needs to be done to build awareness and engagement, as public understanding is still poor. Karen Buck MP added that from a policy point of view, we need a new clean air act, and local authorities need to come together and drive the campaign. The Government must set clear frameworks, the public needs to drive and support the initiatives, and the community has to change its mentality by joining the initiatives.

In conclusion, the panel agreed that they were encouraged by Michael Gove’s speech given on the 16th of July in Kew Gardens. The momentum to tackle air pollution is growing, for it affects us directly and gives a different perspective to the climate change conversation.

The audience was then invited to ask questions or comments. Key points made were:

  • There is little public understanding of what good and bad air quality is (e.g. difference between ambient and underground air).
  • There are plenty of monitors in the outdoors, which can mislead the public to think that once indoor, they are save from the polluted outdoor air. The public needs to be aware and educated about the indoor pollution. A holistic approach to the problem is needed, as air pollution is not only external, but internal as well.
  • People will care much more if they have some ownership of pollution data i.e. it is from their streets and neighbourhood.
  • Idling: there is hardly any research done on the effectiveness of anti-idling policies.
  • Why do councils not clamp and get cars towed away instead of just fining them?

The panel concluded the event on a positive note, stressing how we must bridge between the expertise and the passion of the audience in the room and policy makers. There is more knowledge about the issue of air pollution and simultaneously there is a growing understanding and desire to act.

An Environment Act for Cleaner Air – meeting notes

On the 26th March the APPG on Air Pollution held an event on “An Environment Act for Cleaner Air”, chaired by Geraint Davies MP.

The speakers were:

  • Professor Eloise Scotford, Faculty of Laws, University College London
  • Edward Lockhart, Convener, Broadway Initiative
  • Katie Nield, UK Clean Air Lawyer, ClientEarth
  • Roz Bulleid, Head of Climate, Energy and Environmental Policy, Make UK

Eloise Scotford, UCL

Professor Scotford has been undertaking empirical research into how local authorities deal with air quality governance. The key findings of the research were:

  •  There are unhelpful dissonances between the two statutory regimes for controlling air quality in England – the EU Ambient Air Quality Directive regime (Air Quality Standards Regulations 2010) and the LAQM regime (Environment Act 1995)
  • Local authorities are not necessarily the most appropriate public actor to mitigate air pollution, as they often do not have necessary control over some major pollution sources such as main roads.
  • There is little incentive for action beyond compliance with legal limits.
  • Air quality standards may be inadequate (particularly for PM2.5) but air quality standards defined as numerical concentration limits are also subject to gaming behaviour, and can lead to pollution displacement rather than prevention, so are not necessarily the most suitable (standalone) standards for public health outcomes.
  • The legal requirement to achieve air quality standards in ‘as short a time as possible’ can lead to perverse outcomes, since there is balance needed between the legal pressure to combat air pollution quickly (and meet legal limit values) and the need to look for a sustainable long-term solution.
  • Inconsistent monitoring requirements and modelling approaches at the national and local level can lead to divergent identification of pollution hotspots. As a result, local authorities often have different priorities areas for tackling air pollution, compared with areas that national government sees as the priority. This has an impact on where central government allocates support.
  • Local authorities need more powers (e.g. to tackle vehicle idling), but national government also has a responsibility to lead on policy messaging for behaviour change and on policy measures that require major investment or coordinated action.
  • There are public authorities with control over air pollution sources who are not currently subject to any duties to contribute to achieving air quality outcomes. More administrative coordination is required across all key public actors to tackle air pollution in an effective way (within and across local authorities, with other public actors, across levels of government).

Ed Lockhart, Broadway Initiative.

Ed Lockhart stressed that the Environment Act was an opportunity to shape how we manage the environment that only comes around every twenty years. The nature of this opportunity is defined by:
1) The need to replace EU governance and institutions for the environment which have been responsible for 80% of our laws over the past 46 years
2) The Government’s commitment to leave the environment in a better state against many pressing environmental challenges
3) Time and parliamentary time constraints

Therefore careful thought is needed to put in place the fundamental governance arrangements to consistently put in place the right laws, policies and decisions to solve the full range of environmental problems early including air quality. If we get this right we will enable all sector to play their part in meeting environmental outcomes and truly put sustainability at the heart of the economic model. The opportunity will be missed if we focus simply on legislating around the immediate issues in the press.

To do that the Bill needs to give clarity on the long term outcomes for environmental law and policy and on the roles and responsibilities to enable those outcomes to be achieved.
He said that the Broadway Initiative was set up 18 months previously as a time-limited project to ensure the best possible post-Brexit environmental governance. This grouping brings together many of the major trade associations such as the CBI, the Federation of Small Businesses, Make UK, the Environmental Industries Commission, along with environmental groups, academia and professional bodies. It was calling for the government’s planned Environment Bill to include:

  1.  Clear long-term objectives, supported by a process to develop targets and milestones where needed.
  2.  Environmental Improvement Plans – already in the Bill- for government as a whole to put in place the mechanisms required to enable achievement of those objectives.
  3.  A framework for local environmental improvement plans to enable planning, investment and collaboration in location specific outcomes.
  4. Allocation of responsibilities for specific activities where appropriate.
  5. The planned Office of Environmental Protection to have a strategic role in holding government to account for keeping society on track to meet the outcomes.

He stressed that the Bill needs to get the governance framework right, and then this would provide the context and framing for the details to be fleshed out in later legislation.

Katie Nield, Client Earth

Katie Nield said it was crucial that the Bill make provisions for binding targets that hold government and public bodies to account.

For air pollution, a stronger, legally-binding limit value is needed.

The Bill should provide a framework for target setting, which gives them longevity and allows for flexibility.

Action to deliver the Bill should be co-ordinated across government departments and the need for action should apply across public bodies.

Industry needs to play its part in delivering outcomes e.g. through scrappage schemes and the setting of binding targets for specific sectors.

In order to better understand the problem, a comprehensive, co-ordinated national system for measuring pollution is required, along with greater transparency on the health impacts of air pollution.

The new Office for Environmental Protection needs to have the power to issue binding notices to ensure it is an effective voice for environmental protection.

Roz Bulleid, Make UK

Make UK is the association representing the manufacturing industry.

Industry supports a collaborative approach and is pleased to see government has decided to keep following the best available technology approach for industrial emissions established by the EU rather than look at alternatives such taxation or expecting UK firms to go significantly further. This is important for companies that are competing internationally and need to remain competitiveness. A lot of the changes required are very costly

Companies involved in the automotive sector and those that use non-road mobile machinery, have been taken by surprise at the speed at which policy is changing on air pollution. There is a need for long-term clarity of policy direction.

Long-term visibility through the Environment Bill can help build regulatory alignment into investment cycles. It will also help manage competing priorities, for instance around energy efficiency and air pollution.

Q&A and discussion

Discussion with the audience followed. Key points raised were:

  • A delegate raised the issue that a watchdog with strong teeth could mean that local authorities are apportioned excessive responsibility for the pollution in their area. However there are also concerns that the draft Environment Bill (as currently drafted, particularly in light of clause 17) may not cover enforcement of air quality standards in the same way that EU law enforcement processes currently do.
    • The Environment Bill should include a human right to clean air, as is being discussed at the UN level.
    • Learning from the experience of the LAQM regime, there is a need for better allocated and aligned responsibility for achieving air quality standards on all public actors.
    • The Bill’s governance framework must not be too specific to allow for flexibility.
    • National government needs to provide leadership.
    • Uncertainty shouldn’t limit action, and there is not time to wait for perfect evidence.
    • The particulate matter target (of reducing the number of people living in locations above the WHO guidelines by 50% by 2025) is an vague target and a missed opportunity.
    • A ‘national anti-idling campaign’ would be a good starting point for public engagement in air pollution issues, but there is a need for more to be done to educate the public, which will in turn allow for policymakers to be more ambitious.
    • Low-cost pollution monitors are an issue for the public as the information they provide is often incorrect – but the technology is still in development.
    • There is a need for long-term vision to drive all action and political priorities on air quality.

To close the event, the Chair asked the panel to state their key request for the Environment Bill:

  • Make UK – clarity about what the Bill is trying to achieve, with a long-term vision and targets.
  • Client Earth – long-term flexible mechanisms with non-regressive binding targets. The Bill should establish an advisory body to advise on target setting. The Bill should have flexibility to allow new pollutants to be included in the future, when they are discovered.
  • UCL – duty on all public bodies with some control over air pollution sources to take action to pursue air quality objectives (and perhaps to issue plans showing their contributions)
  • Broadway Initiative – the Bill not including indoor air quality is a missed opportunity.